The head of state of the Romulan Star Empire was said to be the Emperor who was aided by a special Legate but in reality the power rested with the head of government who was the Praetor who presided over the Imperial Romulan Senate. The Senate served as the legislature of the Romulan empire where numerous Senators represented their respective territories. Senators ascended into power through either inherited station, riches or elevation by the Senate itself. Romulan aristocracy held a great deal of sway over the Senate, and many of the nobility's richest and most powerful noblemen are members of the government. Beneath the position of Praetor was the Proconsul, Vice-Proconsul and the First Consul. Numerous coalitions dominated the Senate with Consul's serving as leaders of their respective factions whilst the Proconsul managed the Senate.
- See main articles: Romulan Guard and Romulan Star Navy.
The military wing of the Romulan Empire consists of both a naval branch and one dedicated to the protection of the colonial assets on planets. The former function is fulfilled by the Romulan Guard's Star Navy while the latter is conducted by the Colonial Battalions. A civilian police force known as the Compliance Division also exists which fights criminal activity on Romulan worlds.